Ovarian cysts are small fluid-filled sacs that develop in the ovaries. Many of them resolve on their own. Even if the cysts persist most of them do not require surgery. However cysts which are large or symptomatic do require surgery. Surgery may also be required for some special types of cysts called dermoids to reduce the chance of torsion. Sometimes there may be other reasons too requiring removal of these cysts.
Cystectomy is a surgical procedure during which the ovarian cyst is removed. Laparoscopic cystectomy is a minimally invasive surgery during which a laparoscope, a long thin instrument with a camera attached at one end is used. The procedure is usually done under general anaesthesia and a small incision is usually made below the navel. A laparoscope is inserted through this incision to see the inside of your pelvis and abdomen. Carbon dioxide gas is introduced into the abdominal cavity to create more space to work and instruments introduced through additional ports are used for removing the cysts. Laparoscopic cystectomy removes only the cyst leaving the ovaries intact. Even large cysts can be removed by this technique. Use of special endobags prevent any spillage of the contents of the cyst inside the abdomen
Please note that just because it is a laparoscopic surgery does not mean it is a minor surgery.